Prof. Marcia K. Johnson


Electronic reprints are provided to ensure timely dissemination of scientific information and are for individual, noncommercial use only. All copyrights are retained by the respective copyright holders. These reprints may not be duplicated, distributed, or reposted without permission.



Higgins, J.A., Johnson, M.R. & Johnson, M.K. (2020). Age-related delay in reduced accessibility of refreshed items, Psychology and Aging, 35, 710-719.

Lin, T., Fischer, H. Johnson, M.K. & Ebner, N.C. (2020). The effects of face attractiveness on face memory depend on both age of perceiver and age of face. Cognition & Emotion, 34, 875-889.pdf

Kim, K., Johnson, J.D., Rothschild, D.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2019) Merely presenting one’s own name along with target items is insufficient to produce a memory advantage for the items: A critical role of relational processing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26, 360-366.pdf

Tasimi, A., & Johnson, M. K. (2019). Children’s initial responses and beyond: Effects of niceness and similarity on preference, giving, and memory. Child Development, 90, 432-440.pdf


Simons, J.S., Garrison, J.R., & Johnson, M.K. (2017).  Brain mechanisms of reality monitoring.  Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21, 462-473.

Tasimi, A., Johnson, M.K., & Wynn, K. (2017). Children’s decision-making: When self interest and moral considerations conflict. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 161, 195-201.

van den Honert, R.N., McCarthy, G., & Johnson, M.K. (2017).  Holistic versus feature-based binding i the medial temporal lobe.  Cortex, 91, 56-66.

Durbin, K.A., Mitchell, K.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2017. Source memory that encoding was self-referential: The influence of stimulus characteristics. Memory, 25, 1191-1200.


Garrison, R.R., Bond, R., Gibbard, E., Johnson, M.K., Simons, J.S. (2016). Monitoring what is real:  The effects of modality and action on accuracy and type of reality monitoring error.  Cortex, 87, 108-117. 

van den Honert, R.N., McCarthy, G., & Johnson, M.K. (2016). Reactivation during encoding supports the later discrimination of similar episodic memories. Hippocampus, 26, 1168-1178.

Chekroud, A.M., Zotti, R.J., Shehzad, Z., Gueorguieva, R., Johnson, M.D., Trivedi, M.H., Cannon, T.D., Krystal, J.H., Corlett, P.R. Cross-trial prediction of treatment outcome in depression: a machine learning approach. Lancet Psychiatry, 3, 243-250.

Johnson, M.K. (2016). Falling down the duck/rabbit hole. In RJ Sternberg, ST Fiske, DJ Foss, Scientists making a difference: One hundred eminent behavioral and brain scientists talk about their most important contributions, 132-135, Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, M.K. (2016). Cognitive neuroscience: Applied cognitive psychology. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5, 110-120.


Hirst, W., Phelps, E.A., Meksin, R. Vaidya, C.J., Johnson, M.K., Mitchell, K.J, et al. (2015). A ten-year follow-up of a study of memory for the attack of September 11, 2001: Flashbulb memories and memories for flashbulb events.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 604-623.

Tasimi, A., & Johnson, M. K. (2015). A self-serving bias in children’s memories? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, 528-533

Johnson, M. R., McCarthy, G., Muller, K. A., Brudner, S. N., & Johnson, M. K. (in press). Electrophysiological correlates of refreshing: Event-related potentials associated with directing reflective attention to face, scene, or word presentations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27, 1823-1839.

Johnson, M. K., Kuhl, B. A., Mitchell, K. J., Ankudowich, E., & Durbin, K. A. (2015). Age-related differences in the neural basis of the subjective vividness of memories: Evidence from multivoxel pattern classification. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, 644-661.

Kim, K., & Johnson, M.K. (2015). Distinct neural networks support the mere ownership effect under different motivational contexts. Social Neuroscience, 10, 376-390.


Johnson, M.R., & Johnson, M.K. (2014). Decoding individual natural scene representations during perception and imagery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 59. 

Kim, K., & Johnson, M.K. (2015). Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: Positive subjective value or personal significance? Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 494-500. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu078 

Roth, J.K., Johnson, M.K., Tokoglu, F., Murphy, I., & Constable, R.T. (2014). Modulating intrinsic connectivity: Adjacent subregions within supplementary motor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal cortex connect to separate functional networks during task and also connect during rest. PLoS ONE, 9, e90672. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090672 

Sugimori, E., Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., Greene, E.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2014). Brain mechanisms underlying reality monitoring for heard and imagined words. Psychological Science, 25, 403-413. doi:10.1177/0956797613505776 [PDF]


Ebner, N.C., Johnson, M.R., Rieckmann, A., Durbin, K.A., Johnson, M.K., & Fischer, H. (2013). Processing own-age vs. other-age faces: Neuro-behavioral correlates and effects of emotion. NeuroImage, 78, 363-371. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.04.029 [PDF]

Higgins, J.A., & Johnson, M.K. (2013). Lost thoughts: Implicit semantic interference impairs reflective access to currently active information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 6-11. doi:10.1037/a0028191 [PDF]

Johnson, M.R., Higgins, J.A., Norman, K.A., Sederberg, P.B., Smith, T.A., & Johnson, M.K. (2013). Foraging for thought: an inhibition-of-return-like effect resulting from directing attention within working memory. Psychological Science. Published online 7 May 2013. doi:10.1177/0956797612466414 [PDF]

Kim, K., & Johnson, M.K. (2014). Extended self: Spontaneous activation of medial prefrontal cortex by objects that are “mine.” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 1006-1012. doi:10.1093/scan/nst082 [PDF]

Kuhl, B.A., Johnson, M.K., & Chun, M.M. (2013). Dissociable neural mechanisms for goal-directed versus incidental memory reactivation. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 16099-16109. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0207-13.2013 [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Ankudowich, E., Durbin, K.A., Greene, E.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2013). Age-related differences in agenda-driven monitoring of format and task information. Neuropsychologia, 51, 2427-2441. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.01.012 [PDF]


Ebner, N.C., Johnson, M.K., & Fischer, H. (2012). Neural mechanisms of reading facial emotions in young and older adults. Frontiers of Emotion Science, 3, Article 223. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00223 [PDF]

Higgins, J.A., & Johnson, M.K. (2012). Some thoughts on the interaction between perception and reflection. In J.M. Wolfe & L. Robertson (Eds.), From perception to consciousness: Searching with Anne Treisman. (pp. 390-397). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Kim, K., Yi, D.-J., Raye, C.L., & Johnson, M.K. (2012). Negative effects of item repetition on source memory. Memory & Cognition, 40, 889-901. doi:10.3758/s13421-012-0196-2 [PDF]


Chun, M.M. & Johnson, M.K. (2011). Memory: Enduring traces of perceptual and reflective attention. Neuron, 72, 520-535. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.10.026 [PDF]

Ebner, N.C., Gluth, S., Johnson, M.R., Raye, C.L., Mitchell, K.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2011). Medial prefrontal cortex activity when thinking about others depends on their age. Neurocase, 17, 260-269. doi:10.1080/13554794.2010.536953 [PDF] Author Posting. © Psychology Press, 2011. This is the author’s version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Psychology Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Neurocase, Volume 17 Issue 3, June 2011.

Ebner, N.C., He, Y., Fichtenholtz, H.M., McCarthy, G., & Johnson, M.K. (2011). Electrophysiological correlates of processing faces of younger and older individuals. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 526-535. doi:10.1093/scan/nsq074 [PDF]

Ebner, N.C., He, Y., & Johnson, M.K. (2011). Age and emotion affect how we look at a face: Visual scan patterns differ for own-age versus other-age emotional faces. Cognition & Emotion, 25, 260-269. doi:10.1080/02699931.2010.540817 [PDF]

He, Y., Ebner, N.C., & Johnson, M.K. (2011). What predicts the own-age bias in face recognition memory? Social Cognition, 29, 97-109. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Mitchell, K.J., & Ankudowich, E. (2011). The cognitive neuroscience of true and false memories. In Belli, R.F. (Ed.), True and false recovered memories: Toward a reconciliation of the debate. Vol. 58: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 15-52). New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1195-6_2 [PDF]


Ebner, N.C., & Johnson, M.K. (2010). Age-group differences in interference from young and older emotional faces. Cognition & Emotion, 24, 1095-1116. doi:10.1080/02699930903128395 [PDF]

Kim, K. & Johnson, M.K. (2010). Extended self: Medial prefrontal activity during transient association of self and objects. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 199-207. doi:10.1093/scan/nsq096 [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Johnson, M.R., Higgins, J.A., & Johnson, M.K. (2010). Age differences in brain activity during perceptual vs reflective attention. NeuroReport, 21, 293-297. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e32833730d6 [PDF]

Park, S., Chun, M.M., & Johnson, M.K. (2010). Refreshing and integrating visual scenes in scene-selective cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2813-2822. [PDF]

Turk-Browne, N.B., Scholl, B.J., Johnson, M.K., & Chun, M.M. (2010). Implicit perceptual anticipation triggered by statistical learning. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11177-11187. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.0858-10.2010 [PDF]


Ebner, N.C., & Johnson, M.K. (2009). Young and older emotional faces: Are there age group differences in expression identification and memory? Emotion, 9, 329-339. [PDF]

He, Y., Johnson, M.K., Dovidio, J.F., & McCarthy, G. (2009). The relation between race-related implicit associations and scalp-recorded neural activity evoked by faces from different races. Social Neuroscience, 4, 426-442. [PDF]

Higgins, J.A., & Johnson, M.K. (2009). The consequence of refreshing for access to non-selected items in young and older adults. Memory & Cognition, 37, 164-174. [PDF]

Hirst, W., Phelps, E.A., Buckner, R.L., Budson, A.E., Cuc, A., Gabrieli, J.D.E., Johnson, M.K., Lyle, K.B., Lustig, C., Mather, M., Meksin, R., Mitchell, K.J., Ochsner, K.N., Schacter, D.L., Simons, J.S., & Vaidya, C.J. (2009). Long-term memory for the terrorist attack of September 11: Flashbulb memories, event memories, and the factors that influence their retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 161-176. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Mitchell, K.J., & Levin, Y. (2009). Medial cortex activity, self-reflection, and depression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4, 313-327. [PDF]

Johnson, M.R., & Johnson, M.K. (2009). Top-down enhancement and suppression of activity in category-selective extrastriate cortex from an act of reflective attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 2320-2327. [PDF]

Johnson, M.R., & Johnson, M.K. (2009). Toward characterizing the neural correlates of component processes of cognition. In F. Rosler, C. Ranganath, B. Roeder, & R.H. Kluwe (Eds.), Neuroimaging of human memory: Linking cognitive processes to neural systems (pp. 169-194). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2009). Source monitoring 15 years later: What have we learned from fMRI about the neural mechanisms of source memory? Psychological Bulletin, 135, 638-677. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., Ebner, N.C., Tubridy, S.M., Frankel, H., & Johnson, M.K. (2009). Age-group differences in medial cortex activity associated with thinking about self-relevant agendas. Psychology and Aging, 24, 438-449. [PDF]

Roth, J.K., Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., & Constable, R.T. (2009). Similar and dissociable mechanisms for attention to internal versus external information. NeuroImage, 48, 601-608. [PDF]

Turk-Browne, N.B., Scholl, B.J., Chun, M.M., & Johnson, M.K. (2009). Neural evidence of statistical learning: Efficient detection of visual regularities without awareness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1934-1945. [PDF]


Grillon, M.L., Johnson, M.K., Krebs, M.O., & Huron, C. (2008). Comparing effects of perceptual and reflective repetition on subjective experience during later recognition memory. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 753-764. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2007.09.004 [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Verfaellie, M., & Dunlosky, J. (2008). Introduction to the special section on integrative approaches to source memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 34, 727-729.

Miller, B.T., Verstynen, T., Johnson, M.K., & D’Esposito, M. (2008). Prefrontal and parietal contributions to refreshing: An rTMS study. NeuroImage, 39, 436-440. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., McGuire, J.T., Frankel, H., Greene, E.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2008). Neuroimaging evidence for agenda-dependent monitoring of different features during short-term source memory tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 34, 780-790. [PDF]

Raye, C.L., Mitchell, K.J., Reeder, J.A., Greene, E.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2008). Refreshing one of several active representations: Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging differences between young and older adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 852-862. [PDF]

Yi, D.J., Turk-Browne, N.B., Chun, M.M., & Johnson, M.K. (2008). When a thought equals a look: Refreshing enhances perceptual memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1371-1380. [PDF]


Bloise, S.M., & Johnson, M.K. (2007). Memory for emotional and neutral information: Gender and individual differences in emotional sensitivity. Memory, 15, 192-204. [PDF]

Cunningham, W.A. & Johnson, M.K. (2007). Attitudes and evaluation: Toward a component process framework. In E. Harmon-Jones & P. Winkielman (Eds.), Social neuroscience: Integrating biological and psychological explanations of social behavior (pp. 227-245). New York: The Guilford Press.

Duffy, V.B., Lanier, S.A., Hutchins, H.L., Pescatello, L.S., Johnson, M.K., & Bartoshuk, L.M. (2007). Food preference questionnaire as a screening tool for assessing dietary risk of cardiovascular disease within health risk appraisals. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107, 237-245. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (2007). Memory systems: A cognitive construct for analysis and synthesis. In H.L. Roediger, Y. Dudai, & S.M. Fitzpatrick, (Eds.), Science of Memory: Concepts (pp. 353-357). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (2007). Reality monitoring and the media. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 981-993. [PDF]

Johnson, M.R., Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., D’Esposito, M., & Johnson, M.K. (2007). A brief thought can modulate activity in extrastriate visual areas: Top-down effects of refreshing just-seen visual stimuli. NeuroImage, 37, 290-299. [PDF]

Lyle, K.B., & Johnson, M.K. (2007). Source misattributions may increase the accuracy of source judgments. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1024-1033. [PDF]

Raye, C.L., Johnson, M.K., Mitchell, K.J., Greene, E.J., & Johnson, M.R. (2007). Refreshing: A minimal executive function. Cortex, 43, 135-145. [PDF]

Touryan, S.R., Johnson, M.K., Mitchell, K.J., Farb, N., Cunningham, W.A., & Raye, C.L. (2007). The influence of self-regulatory focus on encoding of, and memory for, emotional words. Social Neuroscience, 2, 14-27. doi:10.1080/17470910601046829 [PDF]


Johnson, M.K. (2006). Memory and reality. American Psychologist, 61, 760-771. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., McGuire, J.T., & Sanislow, C.A. (2006). Mental rubbernecking to negative information depends on task context. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 614-618. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Mitchell, K.J., Touryan, S.R., Greene, E.J., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2006). Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 56-64. [PDF]

Lyle, K.B., Bloise, S.M., & Johnson, M.K. (2006). Age-related binding deficits and the contents of false memories. Psychology and Aging, 21, 86-95. [PDF]

Lyle, K.B., & Johnson, M.K. (2006). Importing perceived features into false memories. Memory, 14, 197-213. [PDF]

Mather, M., Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., Novak, D.L., Greene, E.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2006). Emotional arousal can impair feature binding in working memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 614-625. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Mather, M., Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., & Greene, E.J. (2006). A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of short-term source and item memory for negative pictures. NeuroReport, 17, 1543-1547. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., Johnson, M.K., & Greene, E.J. (2006). An fMRI investigation of short-term source memory in young and older adults. NeuroImage, 30, 627-633. [PDF]


Cunningham, W.A., Raye, C.L., & Johnson, M.K. (2005). Neural correlates of evaluation associated with promotion and prevention regulatory focus. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 202-211. [PDF]

Grillon, M.L., Johnson, M.K., Danion, J.M., Rizzo, L., Verdet, C., & Huron, C. (2005). Assessing a minimal cognitive operation in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 137, 37-48. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (2005). The relation between source memory and episodic memory: Comment on Siedlecki et al. (2005) Psychology and Aging, 20, 529-531. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Mitchell, K.J., Greene, E.J., Cunningham, W.A., & Sanislow, C.A. (2005). Using fMRI to investigate a component process of reflection: Prefrontal correlates of refreshing a just-activated representation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 339-361. [PDF]


Burglen, F., Marczewski, P., Mitchell, K.J., Van der Linden, M., Johnson, M.K., Danion, J-M., & Salamé, P. (2004). Impaired performance in a working memory binding task in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 125, 247-255. [PDF]

Cunningham, W.A., Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Gatenby, J.C., Gore, J.C., & Banaji, M.R. (2004). Separable neural components in the processing of black and white faces. Psychological Science, 15, 806-813. [PDF]

Cunningham, W.A., Raye, C.L., & Johnson, M.K. (2004). Implicit and explicit evaluation: fMRI correlates of valence, emotional intensity, and control in the processing of attitudes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1717-1729. [PDF] (Note: This PDF requires Adobe Reader 5.0 or later to read online; it can be saved and read offline with any version.)

Johnson, M.K., Mitchell, K.J., Raye, C.L., & Greene, E.J. (2004). An age-related deficit in prefrontal cortical function associated with refreshing information. Psychological Science, 15, 127-132. [PDF]

Lyle, K.B., & Johnson, M.K. (2004). Effects of verbalization on lineup face recognition in an interpolated inspection paradigm. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 393-403. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., & Greene, E.J. (2004). Prefrontal cortex activity associated with source monitoring in a working memory task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 921-934. [PDF] (Note: This PDF requires Adobe Reader 5.0 or later to read online; it can be saved and read offline with any version.)

Olson, I.R., Zhang, J.X., Mitchell, K.J., Johnson, M.K., Bloise, S.M., & Higgins, J.A. (2004). Preserved spatial memory over brief intervals in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 19, 310-317. [PDF]

Zhang, J.X., & Johnson, M.K. (2004). A memory-based, Simon-like, spatial congruence effect: Evidence for persisting spatial codes. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A, 419-436. [PDF]


Cunningham, W. A., Johnson, M. K., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Neural components of social evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 639-649. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Mitchell, K.J., Greene, E.J. & Anderson, A.W. (2003). fMRI evidence for an organization of prefrontal cortex by both type of process and type of information. Cerebral Cortex, 13, 265-273. [PDF]

Mather, M., & Johnson, M.K. (2003). Affective review and schema reliance in memory in older and younger adults. American Journal of Psychology, 116, 169-189. [PDF]

Mather, M., Shafir, E., & Johnson, M.K. (2003). Remembering chosen and assigned options. Memory & Cognition, 31, 422-433. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Johnson, M.K., & Mather, M. (2003). Source monitoring and suggestibility to misinformation: Adult age-related differences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 107-119. doi:10.1002/acp.857 [PDF]

Qin, J., Mitchell, K.J., Johnson, M.K., Krystal, J.H., Southwick, S.M., Rasmusson, A.M., & Allen, E.S. (2003). Reactions to and memories for the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 1081-1097. doi:10.1002/acp.987 [PDF]

Ranganath, C., Johnson, M.K., & D’Esposito, M. (2003). Prefrontal activity associated with working memory and episodic long-term memory. Neuropsychologia, 41, 378-389. [PDF]

Zhang, J.X., Leung, H.C., & Johnson, M.K. (2003). Frontal activations associated with accessing and evaluating information in working memory: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 20, 1531-1539. [PDF]


Gulya, M., Rossi-George, A., Hartshorn, K., Vieira, A., Rovee-Collier, C., Johnson, M.K., & Chalfonte, B.L. (2002). The development of explicit memory for basic perceptual features. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81, 276-297. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (2002). Foreword. In Green, M.C., Strange, J.J., & Brock, T.C. (Eds.), Narrative Impact: Social and Cognitive Foundations (pp. ix-xii). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Mitchell, K.J. (2002). Source Monitoring. In Macmillan Psychology Reference Series, Volume 2: Learning and Memory (2nd ed.) (pp. 628-631). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Reeder, J.A., Raye, C.L., & Mitchell, K.J. (2002). Second thoughts versus second looks: An age-related deficit in reflectively refreshing just-active information. Psychological Science, 13, 64-67. [PDF]

Raye, C.L., Johnson, M.K., Mitchell, K.J., Reeder, J.A. & Greene, E.J. (2002). Neuroimaging a single thought: Dorsolateral PFC activity associated with refreshing just-activated information. NeuroImage, 15, 447-453. [PDF]


Curran, T., Schacter, D.L., Johnson, M.K., & Spinks, R. (2001). Brain potentials reflect behavioral differences in true and false recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 201-216. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (2001). False memories, Psychology of. In N.J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 8, pp. 5254-5259). Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier Science Ltd. [PDF]

Qin, J., Raye, C.L., Johnson, M.K., & Mitchell, K.J. (2001). Source ROCs Are (Typically) Curvilinear: Comment on Yonelinas (1999). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 1110-1115. [PDF]


Henkel, L.A., Franklin N., & Johnson, M.K. (2000). Cross-modal source monitoring confusions between perceived and imagined events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 321-335. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (2000). Comments on DeLuca (2000), “A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective on Confabulation”. Neuro-psychoanalysis: An interdisciplinary journal for psychoanalysis and the neurosciences, 2, 150-158. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Hayes, S.M., D’Esposito, M., & Raye, C.L. (2000). Confabulation. In F. Boller, J. Grafman (Series Eds.), & L.S. Cermak (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of neuropsychology: Vol. 2. Memory and its disorders (2nd ed., pp. 383-407). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elservier Science. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Raye, C.L. (2000). Cognitive and brain mechanisms of false memories and beliefs. In D.L. Schacter & E. Scarry (Eds.), Memory, Brain, and Belief (pp. 35-86). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [PDF]

Lindsay, D.S., & Johnson, M.K. (2000). False memories and the source monitoring framework: Reply to Reyna and Lloyd (1997). Learning and Individual Differences, 12, 145-161. [PDF]

Mather, M., & Johnson, M.K. (2000). Choice-supportive source monitoring: Do our decisions seem better to us as we age? Psychology and Aging, 15, 596-606. [PDF]

Mather, M., Shafir, E., & Johnson, M.K. (2000). Misremembrance of options past: Source monitoring and choice. Psycholological Science, 11, 132-138. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., & Johnson, M.K. (2000). Source monitoring: Attributing mental experiences. In E. Tulving & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory (pp. 179-195). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., & D’Esposito, M. (2000). fMRI evidence of age-related hippocampal dysfunction in feature binding in working memory. Cognitive Brain Research, 10, 197-206. [PDF]

Mitchell, K.J., Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Mather, M., & D’Esposito, M. (2000). Aging and reflective processes of working memory: Binding and test load deficits. Psychology and Aging, 15, 527-541. [PDF]

Ranganath, C., Johnson, M.K., & D’Esposito, M. (2000). Left anterior prefrontal activation increases with demands to recall specific perceptual information. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20:RC108, 1-5. [PDF]

Raye, C.L., Johnson, M.K., Mitchell, K.J., Nolde, S.F., & D’Esposito, M. (2000). fMRI investigations of left and right PFC contributions to episodic remembering. Psychobiology, 28, 197-206. [PDF]


Koustaal, W., Schacter, D.L., Johnson, M.K., & Galluccio, L. (1999). Facilitation and impairment of event memory produced by photograph review. Memory & Cognition, 27, 478-493. [PDF]

Mather, M., Johnson, M.K., & De Leonardis, D.M. (1999). Stereotype reliance in source monitoring: Age differences and neuropsychological test correlates. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 16, 437-458. [PDF]

Multhaup, K., De Leonardis, D.M., & Johnson, M.K. (1999). Source memory and eyewitness suggestibility in older adults. Journal of General Psychology, 126, 74-84. [PDF]


Henkel, L.A., Johnson, M.K., & De Leonardis, D.M. (1998). Aging and source monitoring: cognitive processes and neuropsychological correlates. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 251-268. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1998). Individual and cultural reality monitoring. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 560, 179-193. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Bush, J.G., & Mitchell, K.J. (1998). Interpersonal reality monitoring: Judging the sources of other people’s memories. Social Cognition, 16, 199-224. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Raye, C.L. (1998). False memories and confabulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 137-145. [PDF]

Koutsaal, W., Schacter, D.L., Johnson, M.K., Angell, K.E., & Gross, M.S. (1998). Post-event review in older and younger adults: Improving memory accessibility of complex everyday events. Psychology and Aging, 13, 277-296. [PDF]

Nolde, S.F., Johnson, M.K., & D’Esposito, M. (1998). Left prefrontal activation during episodic remembering: An event-related fMRI study. NeuroReport, 9, 3509-3514. [PDF]

Nolde, S.F., Johnson, M.K., & Raye, C.L. (1998). The role of prefrontal cortex during tests of episodic memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 399-406. [PDF]


Dodson, C.S., Johnson, M.K., & Schooler, J.W. (1997). The verbal overshadowing effect: Why descriptions impair face recognition. Memory & Cognition, 25, 129-139. [PDF]

Gelfand, J., Gullapalli, V., Johnson, M., Raye, C., & Henderson, J. (1997). The dynamics of prefrontal cortico-thalamo-basal ganglionic loops and short-term memory interference phenomena. In M. Shafto & P. Langley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 253-258). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1997). Identifying the origin of mental experience. In M.S. Myslobodsky (Ed.), The mythomanias: The nature of deception and self-deception (pp. 133-180). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1997). Source monitoring and memory distortion. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 352, 1733-1745. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Bonilla, J.L., & Hermann, A.M. (1997). Effects of relatedness and number of distractors on attribute judgment in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 11, 392-399. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Kounios, J., & Nolde, S.F. (1997). Electrophysiological brain activity and memory source monitoring. NeuroReport, 8, 1317-1320. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Nolde, S.F., Mather, M., Kounios, J., Schacter, D.L., & Curran, T. (1997). The similarity of brain activity associated with true and false recognition memory depends on test format. Psychological Science, 8, 250-257. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., O’Connor, M., & Cantor, J. (1997). Confabulation, memory deficits, and frontal dysfunction. Brain & Cognition, 34, 189-206. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Reeder, J.A. (1997). Consciousness as meta-processing. In J.D. Cohen & J.W. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness (pp. 261-293). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Mather, M., Henkel, L.A., & Johnson, M.K. (1997). Evaluating characteristics of false memories: Remember/Know judgments and memory characteristics questionnaire compared. Memory & Cognition, 25, 826-837. [PDF]

Schacter, D.L., Koutstaal, W., Johnson, M.K., Gross, M.S., & Angell, K.E. (1997). False recollection induced via photographs: A comparison of older and younger adults. Psychology and Aging, 12, 203-215. [PDF]


Chalfonte, B.L., & Johnson, M.K. (1996). Feature memory and binding in young and older adults. Memory & Cognition, 24, 403-416. [PDF]

Chalfonte, B.L., Verfaellie, M., Johnson, M.K., & Reiss, L. (1996). Spatial location memory in amnesia; Binding item and location information under incidental and intentional encoding conditions. Memory, 4, 591-614. [PDF]

Dodson, C.S., & Johnson, M.K. (1996). Some problems with the process-dissociation approach to memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125, 181-194. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1996). Fact, fantasy, and public policy. In D. Hermann, C.McEvoy, C. Hertzog, P. Hertel, & M.K. Johnson (Eds.), Basic and Applied Memory Research: Theory in Context (Vol. 1, pp. 83-103). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Nolde, S.F., & De Leonardis, D.M. (1996). Emotional focus and source monitoring. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 135-156. [PDF]


Bonilla, J.L., & Johnson, M.K. (1995). Semantic space in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Neuropsychology 9, 345-353. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., De Leonardis, D.M., Hashtroudi, S., & Ferguson, S. A. (1995). Aging and single versus multiple cues in source monitoring. Psychology and Aging, 10, 507-517. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Hermann, A.M. (1995). Semantic relations and Alzheimer’s disease: An early and disproportionate deficit in functional knowledge. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 568-574. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Hermann, A.M., & Bonilla, J.L. (1995). Semantic relations and Alzheimer’s disease: Typicality and direction of testing. Neuropsychology, 9, 529-536. [PDF]


Hashtroudi, S., Johnson, M.K., Vnek, N., & Ferguson, S.A. (1994). Aging and the effects of affective and factual focus on source monitoring and recall. Psychology and Aging, 9, 160-170. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Chalfonte, B.L. (1994). Binding complex memories: The role of reactivation and the hippocampus. In D.L. Schacter & E. Tulving (Eds.), Memory Systems 1994 (pp. 311-350). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Kounios, J., & Reeder, J.A. (1994). Time-course studies of reality monitoring and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1409-1419. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Weisz, C. (1994). Comments on unconscious processing: Finding emotion in the cognitive stream. In P. Niedenthal & S. Kitayama (Eds.), The heart’s eye: Emotional influences in perception and attention (pp. 145-164). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. [PDF]


Dodson, C.S. & Johnson, M.K. (1993). Rate of false source attributions depends on how questions are asked. American Journal of Psychology, 106, 541-557. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, D.S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Hirst, W. (1993). MEM: Memory subsystems as processes. In A.F. Collins, S.E. Gathercole, M.A. Conway, & P.E. Morris (Eds.), Theories of Memory (pp. 241-286). East Sussex, England: Erlbaum. [PDF]


Ferguson, S.A., Hashtroudi, S., & Johnson, M.K. (1992). Age differences in using source relevant cues. Psychology and Aging, 7, 443-452. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1992). MEM: Mechanisms of recollection. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 268-280. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Multhaup, K.S. (1992). Emotion and MEM. In S.-A. Christianson (Ed.), The Handbook of Emotion and Memory: Current Research and Theory (pp. 33-66). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. [PDF]

Kahan, T.L., & Johnson, M.K. (1992). Self effects in memory for person information. Social Cognition, 10, 30-50. [PDF]

Picoult, J., & Johnson, M.K. (1992). Controlling for homophone polarity and prime-target relatedness in the cross-modal lexical decision task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 30, 15-18. [PDF]


Chen, J.Y., & Johnson, M.K. (1991). The Stroop congruency effect is more observable under a speed strategy than an accuracy strategy. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73, 67-76. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1991). Reality monitoring: Evidence from confabulation in organic brain disease patients. In G. Prigatano & D.L. Schacter (Eds.) Awareness of deficit after brain injury: Clinical and theoretical issues (pp. 176-197). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1991). Reflection, reality monitoring, and the self. In R. Kunzendorf (Ed.), Mental imagery (pp 3-16). New York: Plenum. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Hirst, W. (1991). Processing subsystems of memory. In R.G. Lister & H.J. Weingartner (Eds.), Perspectives on cognitive neuroscience (pp. 197-217). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Lindsay, D.S., & Johnson, M.K. (1991). Recognition memory and source monitoring. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 29, 203-205. [PDF]

Lindsay, D.S., Johnson, M.K., & Kwon, P. (1991). Developmental changes in memory source monitoring. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 52, 297-318. [PDF]


Hashtroudi, S., Johnson, M.K., & Chrosniak, L.D. (1990). Aging and qualitative characteristics of memories for perceived and imagined complex events. Psychology and Aging, 5, 119-126. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1990). Functional forms of human memory. In J.L. McGaugh, N.M. Weinberger, & G. Lynch (Eds.), Brain organization and memory: Cells, systems and circuits (pp. 106-134). New York: Oxford University Press. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Sherman, S.J. (1990). Constructing and reconstructing the past and the future in the present. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and social cognition: Foundations of social behavior (pp. 482-526). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF]

Kahan, T.L., & Johnson, M.K. (1990). Memory for seen and imagined rotations of alphanumeric characters. Journal of Mental Imagery, 14, 119-130. [PDF]


Hashtroudi, S., Johnson, M.K., & Chrosniak, L.D. (1989). Aging and source monitoring. Psychology and Aging, 4, 106-112. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Peterson, M.A., Chua Yap, E., & Rose, P.M. (1989). Frequency judgments: The problem of defining a perceptual event. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 15, 126-136. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Suengas, A.G. (1989). Reality monitoring judgments of other people’s memories. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 107-110. [PDF]

Lindsay, D.S., & Johnson, M.K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17, 349-358. [PDF]

Lindsay, D.S., & Johnson, M.K. (1989). The reversed eyewitness suggestibility effect. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 111-113. [PDF]


Finke, R.A., Johnson, M.K., & Shyi, G.C.-W. (1988). Memory confusions for real and imagined completions of symmetrical visual patterns. Memory & Cognition, 16, 133-137. [PDF]

Hirst, W., Johnson, M.K., Phelps, E.A., & Volpe, B.T. (1988). More on recognition and recall in amnesics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 758-762. [PDF]

Hirst, W., Phelps, E.A., Johnson, M.K., & Volpe, B.T. (1988). Amnesia and second language learning. Brain and Cognition, 8, 105-116. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1988). Discriminating the origin of information. In T.F. Oltmanns, & B. A. Maher (Eds.), Delusional beliefs (pp. 34-65). New York: Wiley & Sons. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1988). Reality monitoring: An experimental phenomenological approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 390-394. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Foley, M.A., & Leach, K. (1988). The consequences for memory of imagining in another person’s voice. Memory & Cognition, 16, 337-342. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Foley, M.A., Suengas, A.G., & Raye, C.L. (1988). Phenomenal characteristics of memories for perceived and imagined autobiographical events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 371-376. [PDF]

Suengas, A.G., & Johnson, M.K. (1988). Qualitative effects of rehearsal on memories for perceived and imagined complex events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117, 377-389. [PDF]


Birnbaum, I.M., Taylor, T.H., Johnson, M.K., & Raye, C.L. (1987). Is event frequency encoded automatically? The case of alcohol intoxication. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 251-258. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Hasher, L. (1987). Human learning and memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 631-668. [PDF]

Lindsay, D.S., & Johnson, M.K. (1987). Reality monitoring and suggestibility: Children’s ability to discriminate among memories from different sources. In S.J. Ceci, M.P., Toglia, & D.F. Ross, (Eds.), Children’s eyewitness memory (pp. 92-121). New York: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]


Hirst, W., Johnson, M.K., Kim, J.K., Phelps, E.A., Risse, G., & Volpe, B.T. (1986). Recognition and recall in amnesics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12, 445-451. [PDF]


Foley, M.A., & Johnson, M.K. (1985). Confusions between memories for performed and imagined actions: A developmental comparison. Child Development, 56, 1145-1155. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1985). The origin of memories. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. 4, pp. 1-27). New York: Academic Press. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., & Kim, J.K. (1985). Recognition of pictures by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23, 456-458. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Kim, J.K., & Risse, G. (1985). Do alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome patients acquire affective reactions? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 11, 22-36. [PDF]


Johnson, M.K., & Foley, M.A. (1984). Differentiating fact from fantasy: The reliability of children’s memory. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 33-50.[PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Kahan, T.L., & Raye, C.L. (1984). Dreams and reality monitoring. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 329-344. [PDF]


Davison, G.C., Robins, C., & Johnson, M.K. (1983). Articulated thoughts during simulated situations: A paradigm for studying cognition in emotion and behavior. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 17-40. [PDF]

Foley, M.A., Johnson, M.K., & Raye, C.L. (1983). Age-related changes in confusion between memories for thoughts and memories for speech. Child Development, 54, 51-60. [PDF]

Johnson, M. K. (1983). A multiple-entry, modular memory system. In G.H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory (Vol. 17, pp. 81-123). New York: Academic Press. [PDF]


Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Foley, M.A., & Kim, J.K. (1982). Pictures and images: Spatial and temporal information compared. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 19, 23-26. [PDF]


Johnson, M.K., & Raye, C L. (1981). Reality monitoring. Psychological Review, 88, 67-85. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Foley, H.J., & Foley, M.A. (1981). Cognitive operations and decision bias in reality monitoring. American Journal of Psychology, 94, 37-64. [PDF]


Birnbaum, I.M., Johnson, M.K., Hartley, J.T., & Taylor, T.H. (1980). Alcohol and elaborative schemas for sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 293-300. [PDF]

Durso, F.T., & Johnson, M.K. (1980). The effects of orienting tasks on recognition, recall, and modality confusion of pictures and words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 416-429. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., & Durso, F.T. (1980). Reality monitoring: Second perceptions and thoughts. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 15, 402-404. [PDF]

Raye, C.L. & Johnson, M.K. (1980). Reality monitoring vs. discriminating between external sources of memories. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 15, 405-408. [PDF]

Raye, C.L., Johnson, M.K., & Taylor, T.H. (1980). Is there something special about memory for internally generated information? Memory & Cognition, 8, 141-148. [PDF]


Durso, F.T., & Johnson, M.K. (1979). Facilitation in naming and categorizing repeated pictured and words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 449-459. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Hasher, L., & Chromiak, W. (1979). Are there developmental differences in reality-monitoring? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 27, 120-128. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Raye, C.L., Wang, A.Y., & Taylor, T.H. (1979). Fact and fantasy: The roles of accuracy and variability in confusing imaginations with perceptual experiences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 229-240. [PDF]


Johnson, M.K. (1978). Intro psych for psychologists? Review of Tutorial Essays in Psychology, Vol. I, edited by N.S. Sutherland. Contemporary Psychology, 23, 660-661. [PDF]

Menzel, E.W., Jr, & Johnson, M.K. (1978). Commentary: Cognition and consciousness in nonhuman species. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 586-587. [PDF]


Hasher, L., Griffin, M., & Johnson, M.K. (1977). More on interpretive factors in forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 5, 41-45. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1977). What is being counted none the less? In I.M. Birnbaum & E.S. Parker (Eds.), Alcohol and human memory (pp. 43-50). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Taylor, T.B., & Raye, C.L. (1977). Fact and fantasy: The effects of internally generated events on the apparent frequency of externally generated events. Memory & Cognition, 5, 116-122. [PDF]


Hashtroudi, S., & Johnson, M.K. (1976). Transfer and forgetting: Interpretive shifts and stimulus reinstatement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 262-272. [PDF]

Menzel, E.W., & Johnson, M.K. (1976). Communication and cognitive organization in humans and other animals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 280, 131-142. [PDF]


Hasher, L. & Johnson, M.K. (1975). Interpretive factors in forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1, 567-575. [PDF]


Johnson, M.K., Doll, T.J., Bransford, J.D., & Lapinski, R.H. (1974). Context effects in sentence memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 358-360. [PDF]


Bransford, J.D., & Johnson, M.K. (1973). Considerations of some problems of comprehension. In W. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 383-438). New York: Academic Press. [PDF]

Doll, T.J., Tweedy, J.R., Johnson, M.K., Bransford, J.D., & Flatow, C. (1973). Semantic memory and sentence verification time. Jornal of Experimental Psychology, 100, 428-431. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Bransford, J.D., & Solomon, S.K. (1973). Memory for tacit implications of sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 98, 203-205. [PDF]


Bransford, J.D., & Johnson, M.K. (1972). Contextual prerequisites for understanding: Some investigations of comprehension and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 717-726. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K. (1972). Organizational units in free recall as a source of transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 300-307. [PDF]

Johnson, M.K., Bransford, J.D., Nyberg, S.E., & Cleary, J.J. (1972). Comprehension factors in interpreting memory for abstract and concrete sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 451-454. [PDF]